Female Circumcision
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Female Circumcision Comes to America
by Linda Burstyn - Atlantic Monthly, Oct 1995 - Performed by new immigrants, veiled in deference to a cultural tradition of the developing world, female circumcision is becoming an American problem.
Epidemiology Of Female Sexual Castration In Cairo, Egypt
In 1985, a group of 350 urban Egyptian women were selected to self-report on their recall of their female sexual castration (FSC) which they experienced as children.
Erroneous Belief Systems Underlying Female Genital Mutilation
by Hanny Lightfoot­Klein - I first became aware of the existence of what at that time was still euphemistically called "female circumcision" in 1979.
Mutilated Humanity
by Ashley Montagu - The story of bodily mutilations would occupy a large volume in the story of humankind, and few would be more strange and interesting than those relating to male and female circumcision.
Female Genital Mutilation: Strategies For Eradication
by Fran P. Hosken - Female genital mutilation - the descriptive term for the different types of operations are "excision" and "infibulation" - continues to be practiced in large regions of Africa, from the Red Sea Coast to the shores of the Atlantic. In Indonesia and Malaysia, less drastic forms of "female circumcision" are practiced by some of the Moslem populations of this region and sporadic occurrences have been registered among other mainly Moslem groups.
Genital Mutilation & The United Nations: Male And Female Circumcision, Human Rights, & The Restoration Of Spiritual Integrity & Freedom
by Anastasios Zavales - The world community is increasingly educated on crimes against humanity, in particular, about individuals practicing genital mutilation, commonly termed circumcision. Genital mutilation affects more than 2 million girl­child victims and more than 13.5 million boy­child victims annually throughout the world.
The Rite of Female Circumcision
Ethnic NewsWatch - "No one should live in fear of having parts of her genitals sliced off against her will."
Female Circumcision: Clitorectomy and Infibulations
Offers a selection of articles.
Female Genital Mutilation (Female Circumcision)
by ReligiousTolerance.org
Comparisons Between Male Circumcision and Female "Circumcision"
Rising Daughters Aware
Islam and Female Circumcision
by Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad, Ph.D. - Minaret of Freedom Institute
Global Women Intact
Specializing in female circumcision, genital mutilation, and alternative ritual of passage information.
Female Circumcision Issues Page
The World Health Organization had a conference in February 1979 in Khartoum, Sudan, and unanimously condemned the mutilations as disastrous to womens health and as indefensible on medical as well as humane grounds. In the United States, Rep. Pat Schroeder has written a bill to prohibit female genital mutilation (FGM), H.R. 3247.
Kenyan Woman Forcibly Circumcised
African Eye News Service 07 Dec 2001
The Miserable Tradition Of Female Circumcision
By Deborah Horan - Sep 28, 1997 - Inter Press Service - When Shaima Mahmoud was nine years old, her mother called the village midwife to the house to perform a female rite of passage that has been practiced among women in her Egyptian village for as long as anyone can remember.
First lady celebrates African village that ended female circumcision
News Star Online - Apr 2, 1998 - Hillary Rodham Clinton, meeting with villagers who have ended the practice of female circumcision in their community, praised the village for having started "a great movement."
How is Female Circumcision Trivialized?
"In the same manner as male circumcision, of course!" - Read an extensive list of medical and lay comments about female circumcision.
New Ritual Is Alternative To Female Circumcision
by Dr. Cesar Chelala - Sep 16, 1998 - San Francisco Chronicle - A NEW APPROACH to dealing with female genital mutilation... offers hope for eliminating a practice that has caused women around the world considerable suffering.
Male and Female Circumcision - Related Pages
Anatomy and Function - Commentary - Ethics, Law, Human Rights - Religion - Science and Sociology - Statistics
Articles about Female Circumcision
Historical articles in U.S. medicine.
Female Circumcision: Indications and a New Technique
This 1959 medical journal article reveals how American medicine condoned female circumcision with arguments similar to those still used today to justify male circumcision. We offer this article for historical reference only, as well as to emphasize these similarities and expose medical arrogance.
Knuckleheaded Islamic Thought: Female Circumcision
An angry commentary.
Common Denominators Between Male and Female Circumcision
Lists similarities between male and female circumcision.
Welcome to Womanhood
A video about female circumcision and the effort to stop the practice. - 14 minutes, Grades 10-Adult, Directed by Charlotte Metcalf, Produced by TVE and BBC, 1998, VHS ISBN: 1-56029-755-7
A Centuries-Old Practice, A Deadly Tradition
FGM and Religion: A False Connection -- FGM, or female circumcision as it is also — but incorrectly — known, is practiced by Muslims, Christians, animists, and nonbelievers in a range of communities, often under the mistaken belief that it is a religious dictate. - U.S. Fund for UNICEF 1998
Female Genital Mutilation - A Human Rights Information Pack (1998)
from Amnesty International
Female Circumcision for Religious and Ritual Purposes
Definition and brief analysis of female circumcision.
Senegal bans female circumcision
BBC News Online - Dec 23, 1998 - Senegal has banned female circumcision on cultural or religious grounds. Anybody found practising circumcision on girls now faces up to five years in prison.

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